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Course Objectives

The CompTIA Cybersecurity Analyst (CSA+) certification is a vendor-neutral credential. The CompTIA CSA+ exam is an internationally targeted validation of intermediate-level security skills and knowledge. While there is no required prerequisite, the CompTIA CSA+ certification is intended to follow CompTIA Security+ or equivalent experience and has a technical, “hands-on” focus on IT security analytics.

Description

The CompTIA CSA+ examination is designed for IT security analysts, vulnerability analysts, or threat intelligence analysts. The exam will certify that the successful candidate has the knowledge and skills required to configure and use threat detection tools, perform data analysis, and interpret the results to identify vulnerabilities, threats, and risks to an organization with the end goal of securing and protecting applications and systems within an organization.

Target Audience

This course is designed primarily for cybersecurity practitioners who perform job functions related to protecting information systems by ensuring their availability, integrity, authentication, confidentiality, and non-repudiation. This course focuses on the knowledge, ability, and skills necessary to provide for the defense of those information systems in a cybersecurity context, including protection, detection, analysis, investigation, and response processes. In addition, the course ensures that all members of an IT team—everyone from help desk staff to the Chief Information Officer—understand their role in these security processes.

Training Outline

1.0 Threat Management
1.1 Given a scenario, apply environmental reconnaissance techniques using appropriate tools and processes.

Procedures/common tasks

  • Topology discovery
  • OS fingerprinting
  • Service discovery
  • Packet capture
  • Log review
  • Router/firewall ACLs review
  • Email harvesting
  • Social media profiling
  • Social engineering
  • DNS harvesting
  • Phishing

Variables

  • Wireless vs. wired
  • Virtual vs. physipetet
  • Internal vs external
  • on-premises vs cloud

Tools

  • NMAP
  • Host Scanning
  • Network mapping
  • NESTAT
  • Packet Analyser
  • IDS
1.2 Given a scenario, analyze the results of a network reconnaissance.

Point-in-time data analysis

  • Packet analysis
  • Protocol analysis
  • Traffic analysis
  • Netflow analysis
  • Wireless analysis

Data correlation and analytics

  • Anomaly analysis
  • Trend analysis
  • Availability analysis
  • Heuristic analysis
  • Behavioral analysis

Data output

  • Firewall logs
  • Packet captures
  • NMAP scan results
  • Event logs
  • Syslogs
  • IDS report

Tools

  • SIEM
  • Packet analyzer o
  • IDS
  • Resource monitoring tool
  • Netflow analyzer
1.3 Given a network-based threat, implement or recommend the appropriate response and countermeasure.

Network segmentation

  • System isolation
  • Jump box

Honeypot

Endpoint Group policies

ACLs

  • Sinkhole

Hardening

  • Mandatory Access Control (MAC)
  • Compensating controls
  • Blocking unused ports/services
  • Patching

Network Access Control (NAC)

  • Time-based
  • Rule-based
  • Role-based
  • Location-based
1.4 Explain the purpose of practices used to secure a corporate environment.

Penetration testing

  • Rules of engagement
    • Timing
    • Scope
    • Authorization
    • Exploitation
    • Communication
    • Reporting

Reverse engineering

    • Isolation/sandboxing
    • Hardware
      • Source authenticity of hardware
      • Trusted foundry
      • OEM documentation
      • Software/malware
      • Fingerprinting/hashing
      • Decomposition

Training and exercises

      • Red team
      • Blue team
      • White team

Risk evaluation

    • Technical control review
    • Operational control review
    • Technical impact and likelihood
      • High
      • Medium
      • Low
2.0 Vulnerability Management
2.1 Given a scenario, implement an information security vulnerability management process.

Identification of requirements

  • Regulatory environments
  • Corporate policy
  • Data classification
  • Asset inventory
    • Critical
    • Non-critical

Establish scanning frequency

  • Risk appetite
  • Regulatory requirements
  • Technical constraints
  • Workflow

Configure tools to perform scans according to specification

  • Determine scanning criteria
    • Sensitivity levels
    • Vulnerability feed
    • Scope
    • Credentialed vs. non-credentialed
    • Types of data
    • Server-based vs. agent-based
  • Tool updates/plug-ins
    • SCAP
  •  Permissions and access

Execute scanning

Generate reports

  • Automated vs. manual distribution

Remediation

  • Prioritizing
    • Criticality
    • Difficulty of implementation
  • Communication/change control
  • Sandboxing/testing
  • Inhibitors to remediation
    • MOUs
    • SLAs
    • Organizational governance
    • Business process interruption
    • Degrading functionality

Ongoing scanning and continuous monitoring

2.2 Given a scenario, analyze the output resulting from a vulnerability scan.

Analyze reports from a vulnerability scan

  • Review and interpret scan results
    • Identify false positives
    • Identify exceptions
    • Prioritize response actions

Validate results and correlate other data points

  • Compare to best practices or compliance
  • Reconcile results
  • Review related logs and/or other data sources
  • Determine trends
2.3 Compare and contrast common vulnerabilities found in the following targets within an organization.

Servers

Endpoints

Network infrastructure

Network appliances

Virtual infrastructure

  • Virtual hosts
  • Virtual networks
  • Management interface

Mobile devices

Interconnected networks

Virtual private networks (VPNs)

Industrial Control Systems (ICSs)

SCADA devices

3.0 Cyber Incident Response
3.1 Given a scenario, distinguish threat data or behavior to determine the impact of an incident.

Threat classification

  • Known threats vs. unknown threats
  • Zero day
  • Advanced persistent threat

Factors contributing to incident severity and prioritization

  • Scope of impact
    • Downtime
    • Recovery time
    • Data integrity
    • Economic
    • System process criticality
    • Types of data
    • Personally Identifiable Information (PII)
    • Personal Health Information (PHI)
    • Payment card information
    • Intellectual property
    • Corporate confidential
      • Accounting data
      • Mergers and acquisitions
3.2 Given a scenario, prepare a toolkit and use appropriate forensics tools during an investigation.

Forensics kit

  • Digital forensics workstation
  • Write blockers
  • Cables
  • Drive adapters
  • Wiped removable media
  • Cameras
  • Crime tape
  • Tamper-proof seals
  • Documentation/forms
    • Chain of custody form
    • Incident response plan
    • Incident form
    • Call list/escalation list

Forensic investigation suite

  • Imaging utilities
  • Analysis utilities
  • Chain of custody
  • Hashing utilities
  • OS and process analysis
  • Mobile device forensics
  • Password crackers
  • Cryptography tools
  • Log viewers
3.3 Explain the importance of communication during the incident response process.

Stakeholders

  • HR
  • Legal
  • Marketing
  • Management

Purpose of communication processes

  • Limit communication to trusted parties
  • Disclosure based on regulatory/legislative requirements
  • Prevent inadvertent release of information
  • Secure method of communication

Role-based responsibilities

  • Technical
  • Management
  • Law enforcement
  • Retain incident response provider
3.4 Given a scenario, analyze common symptoms to select the best course of action to support incident response.

Common network-related symptoms

  • Bandwidth consumption
  • Beaconing
  • Irregular peer-to-peer communication
  • Rogue devices on the network
  • Scan sweeps
  • Unusual traffic spikes

Common host-related symptoms

  • Processor consumption
  • Memory consumption
  • Drive capacity consumption
  • Unauthorized software
  • Malicious processes
  • Unauthorized changes
  • Unauthorized privileges
  • Data exfiltration

Common application-related symptoms

  • Anomalous activity
  • Introduction of new accounts
  • Unexpected output
  • Unexpected outbound communication
  • Service interruption
  • Memory overflows
3.5 Summarize the incident recovery and post-incident response process.

Containment techniques

  • Segmentation
  • Isolation
  • Removal
  • Reverse engineering

Eradication techniques

  • Sanitization
  • Reconstruction/reimage
  • Secure disposal

Validation

  • Patching
  • Permissions
  • Scanning
  • Verify logging/communication to security monitoring

Corrective actions

  • Lessons learned report
  • Change control process
  • Update incident response plan

Incident summary report

4.0 Security Architecture and Tool Sets
4.1 Explain the relationship between frameworks, common policies, controls, and procedures.

Regulatory compliance

Frameworks

  • NIST
  • ISO
  • COBIT
  • SABSA
  • TOGAF
  • ITIL

Policies

  • Password policy
  • Acceptable use policy
  • Data ownership policy
  • Data retention policy
  • Account management policy
  • Data classification policy

Controls

  • Control selection based on criteria
  • Organizationally defined parameters
  • Physical controls
  • Logical controls
  • Administrative controls

Procedures

  • Continuous monitoring
  • Evidence production
  • Patching
  • Compensating control development
  • Control testing procedures
  • Manage exceptions
  • Remediation plans

Verifications and quality control

  • Audits
  • Evaluations
  • Assessments
  • Maturity model
  • Certification
4.2 Given a scenario, use data to recommend remediation of security issues related to identity and access management.

Security issues associated with context-based authentication

  • Time
  • Location
  • Frequency
  • Behavioral

Security issues associated with identities

  • Personnel
  • Endpoints
  • Servers
  • Services
  • Roles
  • Applications

Security issues associated with identity repositories

  • Directory services
  • TACACS+
  • RADIUS

Security issues associated with federation and single sign-on

  • Manual vs. automatic provisioning/deprovisioning
  • Self-service password reset

Exploits

  • Impersonation
  • Man-in-the-middle
  • Session hijack
  • Cross-site scripting
  • Privilege escalation
  • Rootkit
4.3 Given a scenario, review security architecture and make recommendations to implement compensating controls.

Security data analytics

  • Data aggregation and correlation
  • Trend analysis
  • Historical analysis

Manual review

  • Firewall log
  • Syslogs
  • Authentication logs
  • Event logs
  • Defense in depth
  • Personnel
    • Training
    • Dual control
    • Separation of duties
    • Third party/consultants
    • Cross training
    • Mandatory vacation
    • Succession planning
  • Processes
    • Continual improvement
    • Scheduled reviews
    • Retirement of processes
  • Technologies
    • Automated reporting
    • Security appliances
    • Security suites
    • Outsourcing
      • Security as a Service
    •  Cryptography
  • Other security concepts
    • Network design
    • Network segmentation
4.4 Given a scenario, use application security best practices while participating in the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC).

Best practices during software development

  • Security requirements definition
  • Security testing phases
    • Static code analysis
    • Web app vulnerability scanning
    • Fuzzing
    • Use interception proxy to crawl application
  • Manual peer reviews
  • User acceptance testing
  • Stress test application
  • Security regression testing
  • Input validation

Secure coding best practices

  • OWASP
  • SANS
  • Center for Internet Security
    • System design recommendations
    • Benchmarks
4.5 Compare and contrast the general purpose and reasons for using various cybersecurity tools and technologies.
(**The intent of this objective is NOT to test specific vendor feature sets.)

Preventative

  • IPS
    • Sourcefire
    • Snort
    • Bro
  • HIPS
  • Firewall
    • Cisco
    • Palo Alto
    • Check Point
  • Antivirus
  • Anti-malware
  • EMET
  • Web proxy
  • Web Application Firewall (WAF)
    • ModSecurity
    • NAXSI
    • Imperva

Collective

  • SIEM
    • ArcSight
    • QRadar
    • Splunk
    • AlienVault
    • OS
    • Kiwi Syslog
  • Network scanning
    • NMAP
  • Vulnerability scanning
    • Qualys
    • Nessus
    • OpenVAS
    • Nexpose
    • Nikto
    • Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer
  • Packet capture
    • Wireshark
    • tcpdump
    • Network General
    • Aircrack-ng
  • Command line/IP utilities
    • netstat
    • ping
    • tracert/traceroute
    • ipconfig/ifconfig
    • nslookup/dig
    • Sysinternals
    • OpenSSL
  • IDS/HIDS
    • Bro

Analytical

  • Vulnerability scanning
    • Qualys
    • Nessus
    • OpenVAS
    • Nexpose
    • Nikto
    • Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer
  • Monitoring tools
    • MRTG
    • Nagios
    • SolarWinds
    • Cacti
    • NetFlow Analyzer
  • Interception proxy
    • Burp Suite
    • Zap
    • Vega

Exploit

  • Interception proxy
    • Burp Suite
    • Zap
    • Vega
  • Exploit framework
    • Metasploit
    • Nexpose
  • Fuzzers
    • Untidy
    • Peach Fuzzer
    • Microsoft SDL File/Regex Fuzzer

Forensics

  • Forensic suites
    • EnCase
    • FTK
    • Helix
    • Sysinternals
    • Cellebrite
  • Hashing
    • MD5sum
    • SHAsum
  • Password cracking
    • John the Ripper
    • Cain & Abel
  • Imaging
    • DD

Prerequisite

  • 3-4 years of hands-on information security or related experience
  • Network+, Security+, or equivalent knowledge